A generator set is a machine, hydraulic turbine, gas turbine, steam turbine, windmill, etc. which drives an AC or DC alternator to convert mechanical energy into electricity.
Its minimum need is a good voltage balance as much independent from load and variables as possible.
Furthermore, the power generated by a generator must be controlled by such protection devices as fuses or circuit breakers installed between the generator and load.
Furthermore, there are control and alarm mechanisms for the important parameters of the driving machine and alternator.
In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction principles. He also found out that if and when a magnetic field passing through a wire changes, a current will induce on the wire. If such wire is rotated by an external force, the energy providing the force in question will be converted into electricity. Thereafter simple manual generators were invented. In 1892, Nicola Tesla invented an alternator generating alternative current.
These engines are classified in different ways. The most popular classification parameters are;
Engines are classified in terms of utilization
a- Marine type of engineers
b- Industrial type of engines for generators, compressors and pumps
c- Automotive type of engines for motor vehicles
d- Traction type of engines for locomotives and trains
Industrial engines are classified into 3 speed ranges in general.
a- High speed - above 1,000 RPM
b- Medium speed - 400 RPM to 1,000 RPM
c- Low speed - below 400 RPM
For 50 Hz and 60 Hz applications:
50 Hz: 3000, 1500, 1000, 750, 600, 500 rpm
60 Hz: 3600, 1800, 1200, 900, 720, 600 rpm
Stroke number (4 strokes - 2 strokes)
Piston’s movement or coupling
Type of fuel
Air supply into cylinders (at ambient pressure or high pressure)
This is the most disputable classification, because rating of an engine depends on the number of its cylinders, volumes of its cylinders, speed, average pressure, etc. Therefore, classification in terms of rating is made on the basis of horse power per cylinder.
Small: Below 25 HP/cyl
Medium: 25 to 200 HP/cyl
Large: Above 200 HP/cyl
Electromagnetic induction creates a current on a wire when the magnetic field passing through that wire changes. If such wire is rotated by an external force, the energy providing the force in question will be converted into electricity.
When such mechanical energy rotates a rotor, the magnetic field surrounding the conductors changes and an electric current is created. In order to create a magnetic field around the rotor, a current can be supplied through induction. Brush-free alternators consist of a main system and an excitation system. The rotating unit of the main system is a rotor consisting of a variable number of poles depending on the rotation per minute. The main poles of the rotor are rotated by the driving machine. Direct current is needed for inducing a magnetic field on the poles. The excitation system supplies direct current to the main poles.
Operation principle of the excitation system is the same as the main system, except that its poles and windings are reversed. In other words, the excitation system has poles on an immovable excitation stator, and has windings on a rotating excitation rotor.
Current passes through the independent supplementary windings of the main stator, is converted into direct current by the voltage regulator, and is fed to the pole windings of the excitation stator. Thus the excitation rotor cuts off the magnetic field emitted by the poles, and three-phase alternative current is generated on the windings of the excitation rotor. Said alternative current is converted into direct current by the bridge diodes located on the rotor and is supplied to the main rotor (main poles).
When a brush-free alternator is under load, an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is used for preventing the voltage from dropping and to keep it at a stable level.
Selection of site
The most important stage of the installation process of a generator is to select a proper site. Please perform the instructions given in the Maintenance and User's Manual of your generator. You can contact MTC to obtain information.
The generator must be installed in a site not exposed to rain, snow, flood, high humidity, direct sunlight, cold weather elements, hot weather elements, dust, soil, sand and wind.
Site selected for the generator must be clean, dry, well illuminated, well ventilated, not too hot, and protected against dirty, abrasive or conducting dust, wastes, smoke, lubricant mist, exhaust emission or other pollutants.
In order to facilitate maintenance operations and checks, sufficient space must be left around the generator set. Under certain conditions, it might be necessary to remove such main units as the engine, alternator, chassis or radiator.
If you will install your generator outdoors, it must be protected against weather elements (optional housing cabins can be provided).
Floor and Platform
The generator can be installed on a platform or a floor built of soil, concrete or steel. Its total weight must not exceed the load bearing capacity of the floor. You are recommended to install your generator on a platform built of reinforced concrete.
Such platform must be large enough to house the dimensions of the generator, so that it will support the generator in such a manner to prevent it from shaking and vibrating. In general, such platform must be 20 to 30 cm thick and its surface area must at least equal to the dimensions of the generator set.
Such platform can be insulated against vibration. If the generator is installed on a site where flood or moisture is a risk, such as a boiler room, related platform must be minimum 300 mm high from the floor. Thus a safe and dry floor for the generator and its operators must be provided.
You are recommended to ensure such platform to be built on a basic foundation or ground independent from other foundations, concrete structures, walls or operational platforms.
Generator sets have been designed to reduce their vibration to minimum. There are vibration insulators between the engine/alternator and the chassis. In large generators, vibration insulators are installed under the chassis.
If the generator is installed in a room located on the roof or a floor of a high building, vibration must be properly insulated. Such insulation is provided with spring type of vibration insulators in general. Such building must be strong enough to carry the generator set, its fuel tanks and its equipment.
Fix the generator on such floor or platform with iron anchorages or similar fittings and prevent it from moving, to ensure its electrical connections, fuel tanks and exhaust system not to harm the environment and people.
Cooling and ventilation
Heat emitted by the engine can change the ambient temperature in such a manner to make a negative impact on the generator set, its operators or maintenance personnel.
Air supplied to the generator must be as much clean and cool as possible. Ventilation is an important factor in terms of the service life and performance of the generator. Under normal conditions, such air can be obtained through natural circulation, but in some cases it might be necessary to force fed air from atmosphere or another room to the generator.
Ventilation windows must be provided behind the alternator for cool air input and in front of the radiator to remove hot air. Be sure to remove hot air from the room through a flexible connection installed between the radiator and a vent.
Dimensions of the ventilation windows must be calculated in such a manner to provide sufficient ventilation air input. As a minimum requirement, related windows must be as large as the radiator's honeycomb. If possible, they must be as large as 150% of the radiator's honeycomb. Exhaust System The exhaust system must be designed in such a manner to prevent back pressure. If the exhaust system suffers too much back pressure, the engine's efficiency will decrease and operating temperature will raise.
The exhaust system must be connected to the engine's exhaust outlet through a flexible coupling.
Exhaust emissions might be fatal. Therefore, the exhaust system must be installed in such a manner to prevent its emissions from accumulating. Furthermore, exposure to the engine's exhaust noise for a long time can lead to loss of hearing. A generator must never be operated if it does not have a full exhaust system. All personnel working around the generator set must wear earplugs.
Fuel system must be capable of providing clean fuel to the engine in a continuous manner. The fuel system must be designed in accordance with the regulations and specifications governing them or their electric equipment.
Sparks, flame and smoking must not be allowed around the fuel system. Clean fuel will extend the service life of the engine and help it to run in a reliable way. You are recommended to insert pre-filter units between the fuel filters and the fuel transfer pump of the engine. Water and sedimentation sieves must be installed on the transfer pump line.
MTC generators are equipped with a programmable microprocessor and control units measuring and indicating all parameters and alarm messages as a standard.
Control systems enable the operators to switch on and off the generator and to monitor its various parameters. Programmable parameters provide flexible control over changing conditions.
Control panels are made of A1 quality steel plate and painted with electrostatic powder paint against corrosion.
In addition to the standard TJM (Manuel), TJA (Automatic) ve TJPS (Synchronization) control panels, MTC manufactures custom-built control panels in accordance with the specifications and operating conditions of its customers.
Transfer panels are used for controlling and transferring the output power of a generator in a safe way.
To make such transfer, the generator set's norms and capacity must be sufficient for the output power needed.
Control panels of the generators automatically switching on and off contain contactors, motorized switches, etc.
Switches of the automatic control systems must be controlled by the generator control unit.
Manual generator sets can be equipped with thermic-magnetic circuit breakers and inverse switches.
MTC uses synchronized systems to develop alternative solutions for energy projects. Synchronization panels designed by the engineers of MTC Generator provide both latest technology and integrated solutions to the customers. Built by grouping a number of generators to meet the customers' demand of high kVA, this system provides considerable advantages in comparison to a single generator having the same rating. Synchronization panels designed by the engineers of MTC provide both latest technology and integrated solutions to the customers.
MTC used its technical specialty on generating high amounts of power through synchronization of multiple generators, its global resources, and its manufacturing processes to develop cost-efficient systems meeting all kinds of different demands, and proved that it is distinguished in this industry.
Built by synchronizing various individual generator sets having small ratings, this system provides the advantages described below in comparison to a single generator having the same rating:
- Low cost
- Comparison of costs
- Lower initial investment budget
- Flexible use
- Reliable system
- Easy technical and maintenance services
- Easy delivery and abundant spare parts
Multiple generator applications for prime power
Where municipal power is not available, two or more generators are synchronized with each other to supply continuous power for loads, and they share the loads in proportion with their individual ratings. Depending on the load of the workplace, these generators are switched on and off for cost-efficient use.
Multiple generator applications for stand-by power
If municipal power network goes out of its pre-selected limits, two or more generators are switched on synchronous with each other and supply power for the actual loads in proportion with their individual ratings. When municipal power network is restored to its pre-selected limits, the generators transfer their loads back to the network.
Continuous Parallel Operation
Given that power utility companies charge different unit prices for different hours of a day, charge a higher price when the power consumed exceeds a pre-defined amount, or limit the power available to consumers in certain regions due to insufficient infrastructure, it is advantageous for the consumers to continuously generate power in parallel with municipal power network. A few parallel operation methods are available.
The first method is the base load peak lopping method where a pre-defined portion of the active load is powered by a generator system and the remaining portion of related load is powered by municipal power network. This method is favored for cogeneration systems where the load is fixed. Another method is the true peak lopping method where the power drawn from municipal power system is limited, and the amount of power exceeding such limit is supplied by a generator. This method is preferred where the unit price is high for consumption above a certain limit or power available in municipal power network is limited.
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